Afshon Ostovar, Ph.D. is a Project Director and Research Scientist at the Center for Strategic Studies at CNA, a not-for-profit federally-funded research organization. He was previously an Adjunct Professor in Global Security Studies at Johns Hopkins University and a fellow at the Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. His research focuses on security and strategic issues in the Middle East, with a specialty on Iranian strategy, armed forces, and allied entities in the region. He is the author of, On Shifting Sands, a report on the impact of sanctions and the Arab Spring on Iranian strategy. Ostovar is writing a book on politics, conflict, and Iran’s Revolutionary Guards.